Manner of Vaulting.

   Seize the mane with the left hand, hold the reins of the snaffle in the right hand, and place it on the withers, the thumb to the left, the fingers to the right; raise yourself lightly on the two wrists, the body straight; pass the right leg extended, over the croup of the horse, without touching him, and seat yourself gently on his back. 

   To Dismount.—Pass the left rein of the snaffle into the right hand; place this hand on the withers seize the mane with the left hand, raise yourself gently on the two wrists; pass the right leg extended, over the croup of the horse, without touching him; bring the right thigh near the left, the body straight, and come to the ground lightly on the toes, bending the knees a little.

Manner of Rolling the Cloak.

The cloak being entirely unfolded, the sleeves


are laid flat and extended parallel to the two front edges of the cloak; each one is then turned up and folded near the elbow, so as to give a length of three feet six inches from one elbow to the other, the middle of the cloak remaining uncovered. The cape is then turned down over the sleeves, in such a manner that the front edges may exactly cover those of the cloak.
   The lower extremity of the cloak is turned up about ten inches; the skirts are likewise turned towards each other, so that they may touch the fold of the sleeves, and that, being folded a second time upon themselves, they may give to the cloak the form of a rectangle; the lower extremity of the cloak is then turned up about seven inches, and it is rolled as tightly as possible, commencing at the collar and pressing the knee upon it as it is rolled, to hold it. The part of the cloak which is rolled is then introduced into the sort of pocket formed by the part which was turned back.
   Note:—The overcoat or cloak, when rolled, should be about thirty inches long, and about five inches thick.

Manner of Rolling the Blanket.

The effects — pants, blouse, soldier's books, shirts, towels, brushes, &c. - should be laid smoothly in the


centre of the blanket, the side edges of which should be turned towards each other, covering the effects, so as to leave the blanket when rolled about thirty inches long; it should then be rolled, pressing with the knees as tightly as possible, confined in a pocket formed similar to that of the overcoat. The roll should not be over six inches thick.
   If gutta-percha coats or blankets are furnished, they should be rolled similarly to the blanket. If required, a supply of grain can be carried in them; for one or two feeds.

Manner of Folding the Saddle-Blanket.

    Double the blanket lengthwise, then fold it in three equal parts: when folded, it will be in six thicknesses.

Manner of saddling with McClellan Saddle.

   Approach the horse on the left side, lay on the saddle-blanket; seize it then with the left hand on the withers, and with the right on the loins; slide it once or twice from front to rear, to smooth the hair, taking care to raise it in carrying it forward, so as not to brush up the hair. Throw the girths over the seat of the saddle, the stirrups and also the crupper. Seize the pommel of the saddle with the right hand, the cantle with the left, approach


the horse from the rear on the off side, place it on the horse's back a few inches in rear of its proper place, lay back the crupper, let down the stirrups and girth, regulate the latter if necessary, step behind the horse, seize the tail with the left hand and twist the hair around the dock with the right hand, which then seizes the crupper and pass the tail through it, taking care that none of the hair remains under it, which would hurt the horse, pass to the near side, regulate the length of the crupper if necessary, carry the saddle forward to within three inches of the point of the horse's shoulder. Seize the ring of the girth in the left hand, strap in the right hand, pass the strap down through the ring from inside to outside, bringing it up and passing it down through the D-ring of the saddle, from outside to inside, then down again through the girth-ring into the buckle; tighten the girth as tight as you can conveniently draw it without wrinkling the skin of the horse.
   Pass the surcingle over the saddle, buckle it tightly on the near side in rear of the girth.
   To unsaddle, proceed in a reverse order to the above.

Manner of Bridling.

Stand on the left side of the horse, the reins 


of the bridle in the bend of the left arm, the top of the headstall on the forearm; seize the bridle by the top of the headstall with the right hand, the nails downward; pass the right arm over the horses neck, so that the hand may be in front of his head; seize the bit with the left hand near the boss, place it in the horse's mouth, placing the left thumb on the bars of the mouth to make him open it; pass the horse's ears through the headstall, hook the curb, buckle the throat-strap loosely, and throw the reins over the horse's head. Attach the halter strap, rolled up, to the ring on the left side of the saddle.
   To unbridle, proceed in a reverse manner to the above.

Manner of Placing the Effects on the Saddle.

   Place the overcoat on the front of the saddle, lining down, pocket towards the rear, buckle the centre strap so tightly the the coat cannot touch the withers, then buckle the other straps as tightly as possible.
   Fasten the blanket to the cantle in the same manner.
   The currycomb, brush, extra horseshoes, &c. should be carried in the saddle-bags.
   The nose-bag, when used, may be attached to the off side of the pommel.


The haversack may be attached to the pommel on the near side.
The canteen should never be attached to the saddle.
The effects should always be removed before the saddle is taken from the horse.







Position of the Trooper Before Mounting.

The trooper places himself on the left side of the horse, abreast of the nether jaw; he holds the reins with the right hand, at six inches from the mouth of the horse, the nails downward, the rest of the body in the position of the trooper dismounted. When the trooper is under arms, he has the left hand over the sabre.

To Mount when Formed in Two Ranks.
At open order, the command is:
Prepare to MOUNT.
One time, two motions.

   1. At the command, PREPARE TO MOUNT, Nos. 1 and 3 of each rank move six paces to the front, stepping off with the left foot, keeping opposite their intervals, and regulating by the right. Place the right foot three inches in rear of the left; make a



face and a half to the right on both heels, the right foot remaining in front; let go the right rein, slip the left hand along the left rein, take two steps, stepping off with the right foot, face to the left upon the point of the left foot, the right side towards the flank of the horse; carry back the right heel three inches in rear of the left; the right hand, seizing the end of the reins, is placed upon the cantle of the saddle.
   2. Place a third of the left foot in the stirrup, supporting it against the forearm of the horse; rest upon the point of the right foot, and seize with the left hand, over the reins, a lock of mane as far forward as possible, the extremity of the lock passing out of the hand on the other side of the finger.

One time, two motions.

   1. At the command MOUNT, spring from the right foot, holding firmly to the mane, at the same time pressing upon the cantle to prevent the saddle from turning; the body erect.
   2. Pass the right leg stretched over the croup of the horse, without touching him; sit lightly in the saddle, placing at the same time the right hand, without quitting the reins, upon the right holster,


the palm of the hand resting upon it, the fingers on the outside of it; pass the reins of the bridle into the left hand, and adjust them; place the right foot in the stirrup.

Form Ranks.

   At the last part of the command, which is RANKS, Nos. 1 and 3 raise the wrist of the left hand, and hold the legs close to the body of the horse to keep him quiet; Nos. 2 and 4 enter the intervals without jostling and without precipitation.

   The rear rank being formed, closes to the distance of two feet from the front.


   The buttocks bearing equally upon the saddle, and as far forward as possible;
   The thighs turned upon their flat side without effort, embracing equally the horse, and stretched only by their own weight and that of the legs;
   A supple bend of the knees;
   The legs free and falling naturally;
   The point of the feet falling in like manner;
   The loins supported without stiffness;
   The upper part of the body at ease, free and erect;
   The shoulders equally thrown back;
   The arms free, the elbows falling naturally;


   The head erect, at ease, and not drawn in between the shoulders;
   The reins in the left hand.

Position of the Bridle-Hand.

   The reins in the left hand, the little finger between the reins, the other fingers well closed, and the thumb upon the second joint of the first finger; the elbow slightly detached from the body, the hand four inches above the pommel of the saddle, the fingers six inches from and turned towards the body; the little finger a little nearer the body than the upper part of the wrist, the right hand at the side; bear very lightly on the bit.

The Effect of Reins and Legs Combined.

   In elevating a little the wrist and drawing it close to the body, and closing the legs, the trooper gathers his horse; in elevating again the wrist, he slackens the pace; in repeating this movement of the wrist, he stops the horse, or reins back. The trooper ought to elevate the wrists without curving them, at the same time drawing them slightly towards the body.
   In opening the right rein and closing the right leg, the trooper turns his horse to the right. This is done by carrying the bridle-hand to the left without turning it.


   In opening the left rein, and closing the left leg, the trooper turns his horse to the left. The left rein is opened by carrying the left hand to the left.
   By lowering slightly the wrists, the horse is at liberty to move forward; the closing of the legs determines the movement.

Use of the Spur.

   If the horse does not obey the legs, it is necessary to use the spur. It is only used for chastising: it is not an aid. It is only necessary to use it occasionally, but always vigorously and at the moment the horse commits the fault. The trooper is forbidden to use the spur unnecessarily.

To March at a Walk, Trot, and Gallop.

   To WALK—Lower slightly the hand, the wrist always opposite the middle of the body, and close the legs progressively. As soon as the horse obeys, replace the hand and legs by degrees.
   To TROT.—Proceed as above, continuing the closing of the legs until the horse obeys.
   To GALLOP.—Carry the hand slightly forward and to the left, to enable the right shoulder to move in advance of the left, and close the legs behind the girths in order to urge the horse forward, causing him to feel slightly the effect of the left leg. The


horse having obeyed, hold a light hand and the legs near to keep him at his gait.


   When acting as a fixed pivot, the trooper should turn the horse on his centre, without gaining ground to the right, left, front, or rear.

In the Wheel to the Right.

   Carry the bridle-hand to the right, close the right leg, keep the left leg near to support the horse, feel the rein enough to keep the horse from advancing, make his shoulders describe an arc of a circle from the left to the right, and the haunches another from the right to the left; when the wheel is completed, gradually replace the legs and bridle-hand.
   In the wheel to the left, proceed as above, using inverse means.

To Passage to the Right or Left.

   To Passage to the right, bear the shoulders of the horse to the right, by inclining the hand forward and to the right; close the left leg that the haunches may follow, keep the right leg near to sustain the horse.
   In order to cease passaging, straighten the horse, hold the right leg near, and replace the hand and leg by degrees.


   To passage to the left and to cease passaging, employ the same principles, but by inverse means.
   NOTE:—Passaging is used in dressing the ranks, &c.

To Leap the Ditch.

   Take a walk, then the trot; on arriving near the ditch, give the hand and close the legs, to force the horse to make the leap. The moment he reaches the ground, raise slightly the hand to sustain him.

To Leap the Bar.

   On arriving near the bar, rein up the horse slightly and close the legs. At the moment of making the leap, give the hand, and elevate it slightly as soon as he reaches the ground on the other side. The trooper, in leaping, should cling to the horse with the thighs and calves of the legs, taking care to lean a little forward as the horse is in the act of springing, and to seat himself well by leaning well to the rear at the moment the horse reaches the ground.

Mode of Swimming a Horse.

   Take up and cross the stirrups, to prevent the horse from entangling himself with them. Hold the reins loosely, and guide the horse by the slightest touch possible. Lean your chest as much over the horse's withers as possible, throwing the weight for-


ward and holding the horse's mane, to prevent the rush of the water carrying you backwards. If the horse appears distressed, a man who cannot swim may with safety hold the mane, and throw himself flat on the water, thereby relieving the horse from his weight. When the horse comes to his depth, he may again get back to his saddle.

To Dismount.
1. Prepare to DISMOUNT.
One time, two motions.

   At the command Prepare to DISMOUNT, Nos. 1 and 3 of the front rank move forward six paces. Nos. 2 and 4 of the rear rank rein back four paces, and keep themselves opposite their intervals.  The troopers of each rank dress by the right.
   Pass the right rein of the snaffle into the left hand, the extremity of the reins leaving the hand on the inside of the thumb.
   Seize the carbine with the right hand at the lower band; pass it over the right shoulder diagonally, the muzzle in the air, so that it cannot fall back.
   Seize the reins above and near the left thumb with the right hand, the nails downward; place this hand on the right of the pommel. Disengage the right foot from the stirrup, and seize with the left hand a lock of mane over the reins.


One time, two motions.

   1. At the command DISMOUNT, rise upon the left stirrup; pass the right leg extended over the croup of the horse, without touching him, and bring the right thigh hear to the left, the body being well sustained; place at the same time the right hand on the cantle of the saddle, slipping it along the reins without letting them go; descend lightly to the ground, the body erect, the heels upon the same line. Let go the mane with the left hand; engage the extremity of the reins in the left cloak strap with the right hand, which then seizes the left rein.
   2. Make a face and two steps to the left, stepping off with the left foot; slip the right hand along the left rein, seize with the same hand both reins six inches from the mouth of the horse, the nails downward, and take the position before mounting.


   At the last part of the command, which is RANKS, Nos. 1 and 3 of each rank elevate slightly the right hand to keep the horse quiet; Nos. 2 and 4 return to their intervals gently.



Military Discipline.

   1. All inferiors are required to obey strictly, and to execute with alacrity and good faith, the lawful orders of the superiors appointed over them.
   2. Military authority is to be exercised with firmness, but with kindness and justice to inferiors. Punishments shall be strictly conformable to military law.
   3. Superiors of every grade are forbidden to injure those under them by tyrannical or capricious conduct, or by abusive language.

Rank and Command.

   Sergeant Major
   Quartermaster Sergeant of a Regiment.
   Ordnance Sergeant and Hospital Steward.
   First Sergeant.
   And in each grade by date of appointment.


Non-Commissioned Officers.

   78. It is enjoined upon all officers to be cautious in reproving non-commissioned officers in the presence or hearing of privates, lest their authority be weakened; and non-commissioned officers are not to be sent to the guard-room and mixed with privates during confinement, but to be considered as placed in arrest, except in aggravated cases, where escape may be apprehended.
   79. Non-commissioned officers may be reduced to the ranks by the sentence of a court-martial, or by order of the commander of the regiment, on the application of the company commander. If reduced to the ranks by garrison courts, at posts not the head-quarters of the regiment, the company commander will immediately forward a transcript of the order to the regimental commander.
   80. Every non-commissioned officer shall be furnished with a certificate or warrant of his rank, signed by the colonel and countersigned by the adjutant. Blank warrants, on parchment, are furnished from the Adjutant-General's Office. The first or orderly sergeant will be selected by the captain from the sergeants.


90. The captain will cause the men of the company to be numbered in a regular series, including


the non-commissioned officers, and divided into four squads, each to be put under charge of a non-commissioned officer.
   91. Each subaltern officer will be charged with a squad for the supervision of its order and cleanliness; and captains will require their lieutenants to assist them in the performance of all company duties.
   92. As far as practicable, the men of each squad will be quartered together.
   97. Dirty clothes will be kept in an appropriate part of the knapsack; no article of any kind to be put under the bedding.
   99. Ordinarily the cleaning will be on Saturdays. The chiefs of squads will cause bunks and bedding to be overhauled; floors dry rubbed; tables and benches scoured; arms cleaned; accoutrements whitened and polished, and every thing put in order.
   100. Where conveniences for bathing are to be had, the men should bathe once or twice a week. The feet to be washed at least twice a week. The hair kept short, and beard neatly trimmed.
   101. Non-commissioned officers, in command of squads, will be held more immediately responsible that their men observe what is prescribed above; that they wash their hands and faces daily; that they brush or comb their heads; that those who are to go on duty put-their arms, accoutrements, dress, &c., in the best order, and that such as have per


mission to pass the chain of sentinels are in the dress that may be ordered.
   105. All arms in the hands of the troops, whether browned or bright, will be kept in the state in which they are issued by the Ordnance Department. Arms will not be taken to pieces without permission of a commissioned officer. Bright barrels will be kept clean and free from rust without polishing them; care should be taken in rubbing not to bruise or bend the barrel. After firing, wash out the bore; wipe it dry, and then pass a bit of cloth, slightly greased, to the bottom. In these operations, a rod of wood with a loop in one end is to be used instead of the rammer. The barrel, when not in use, will be closed with a stopper. For exercise, each soldier should keep himself provided with a piece of sole leather to fit the cup or countersink of the hammer. (For care of arms in service, see Ordnance Manual, page 185, &c.)
   106. Arms shall not be left loaded in quarters or tents, or when the men are off duty, except by special orders.
112. Haversacks will be marked upon the flap with the number and name of the regiment, the letter of the company, and number of the soldier, in black letters and figures. And each soldier must, at all times, be provided with a haversack and canteen, and will exhibit them at all inspections. It will be worn on the left side on marches, guard, and when paraded for detached service-the canteen outside the haversack.
   115. Soldiers will wear the prescribed uniform in camp or garrison, and will not be permitted to keep in their possession any other clothing. When on fatigue parties, they will wear the proper fatigue dress.
   122. On marches and in the field, the only mess furniture of the soldier will be one tin plate, one tin cup, one knife, fork, and spoon, to each man, to be carried by himself on the march.


   163. No enlisted man shall be discharged before the expiration of his term of enlistment without authority of the War Department, except by sentence of a general court-martial, or by the commander of the Department or of an army in the field, on certificate of disability, or on application of the soldier after twenty years' service.
   169. Insane soldiers will not be discharged, but sent, under proper protection, by the Department commander to Washington for the order of the War Department for their admission into the Government Asylum. The history of the cases, with the men's descriptive list, and accounts of pay and clothing, will be sent with them.


Military Discussions and Publications.

   220. Deliberations or discussions among any class of military men, having the object of conveying praise, or censure, or any mark of approbation toward their superiors or others in the military service; and all publications relative to transactions between officers of a private or personal nature, whether newspaper, pamphlet, or hand-bill, are strictly prohibited.


   234. There shall be daily at least three roll-calls, viz., at reveille, retreat, and tattoo. They will be made on the company parades by the first sergeants, superintended by a commissioned officer of the company. The captains will report the absentees without leave to the colonel or commanding officer.
   235. Immediately after reveille roll-call (after stable-duty in the cavalry), the tents or quarters, and the space around them, will be put in order by the men of the companies, superintended by the chiefs of squads, and the guard-house or guard-tent by the guard or prisoners.

Honors to be Paid by the Troops.

   242. All guards are to turn out and present arms to General officers as often as they pass them, except the personal guards of General officers, which turn


out only to the Generals whose guards they are, and to officers of superior rank.
   251. No compliments by guards or sentinels will be paid between retreat and reveille, except as prescribed for grand rounds.
   252. All guards and sentinels are to pay the same compliments to the officers of the navy, marines, and militia, in the service of the United States, as are directed to be paid to the officers of the army, according to their relative ranks.
   253. It is equally the duty of non-commissioned officers and soldiers, at all times and in all situations, to pay the proper compliments to officers of the navy and marines, and to officers of other regiments, when in uniform, as to officers of their own particular regiments and corps.
   254. Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline. Respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty, but will be extended to all occasions. It is always the duty of the inferior to accost or to offer first the customary salutation, and of the superior to return such complimentary notice.
   256. When a soldier without arms, or with side-arms only, meets an officer, he is to raise his hand to the right side of the visor of his cap, palm to the front, elbow raised as high as the shoulder, look-


ing at the same time in a respectful and soldier-like manner at the officer, who will return the compliment thus offered.
   257. A non-commissioned officer or soldier being seated, and without particular occupation, will rise on the approach of an officer, and make the customary salutation. If standing, he will turn toward the officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain in the same place or on the same ground, such compliments need not be repeated.

Funeral Honors.

   286. The funeral escort of a non-commissioned staff officer shall consist of sixteen rank and file, commanded by a Sergeant.
   287. That of a Sergeant, of fourteen rank and file, commanded by a Sergeant.
   288. That of a Corporal, of twelve rank and file, commanded by a Corporal.


   399. Sentinels will be relieved every two hours, unless the state of the weather, or other causes, should make it necessary or proper that it be done at shorter or longer intervals.
   400. Each relief, before mounting, is inspected by the commander of the guard or of its post. The


Corporal reports to him, and presents the old relief on its return.
   401. The countersign, or watchword, is given to such persons as are entitled to pass during the night, and to officers, non-commissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard. Interior guards receive the countersign only when ordered by the commander of the troops.
   409. Neither officers nor soldiers are to take off their clothing or accoutrements while they are on guard.
   413. Sentinels will not take orders or allow themselves to be relieved, except by an officer or non-commissioned officer of their guard or party, the officer of the day, or the commanding officer; in which case the orders will be immediately notified to the commander of the guard by the officer giving them.
   414. Sentinels will report every breach of orders or regulations they are instructed to enforce.
   415. Sentinels must keep themselves on the alert, observing every thing that takes place within sight and hearing of their post. They will carry their arms habitually at support, or on either shoulder, but will never quit them. In wet weather if there be no sentry-box, they will secure arms.
   416. No sentinel shall quit his post or hold con-


versation not necessary to the proper discharge of his duty.
   417. All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required to observe respect toward sentinels.
   418. In case of disorder, a sentinel must call out the guard; and if a fire take place, he must cry; “Fire!” adding the number of his post. If in either case the danger be great, he must discharge his firelock before calling out.
   419. It is the duty of a sentinel to repeat all calls made from posts more distant from the main body of the guard than his own, and no sentinel will be posted so distant as not to be heard by the guard, either directly or through other sentinels.
   420. Sentinels will present arms to general and field officers, to the officer of the day, and to the commanding officer of the post. To all other officers they will carry arms. 
   421. When a sentinel in his sentry-box sees an officer approaching, he will stand at attention, and as the officer passes will salute him, by bringing the left hand briskly to the musket, as high as the right shoulder.
   422. The sentinel at any post of the guard, when he sees any body o! troops, or an officer entitled to compliment, approach, must call-“ Turn out the guard!” and announce who approaches.


   423. Guards do not turn out as a matter of compliment after sunset,; but sentinels will, when officers in uniform approach, pay them proper attention, by facing to the proper front, and standing steady at shouldered arms. This will be observed until the evening is so far advanced that the sentinels begin challenging.
   424. After retreat (or the hour appointed by the commanding officer), until broad daylight, a sentinel challenges every person who approaches him, taking, at the same time, the position of arms port. He will suffer no person to come nearer than within reach of his bayonet, until the person has given the countersign.
   425. A sentinel, in challenging, will call out; “Who comes there?” If answered-“ Friend, with the countersign,” and he be instructed to pass persons with the countersign, he will reply-“Advance, friend, with the countersign!” If answered-“Friends!” he will reply-“ Halt, friends! Advance one with the countersign!” If answered-“ Relief,” “ Patrol,” or “Grand rounds,” he will reply-“ Halt! Advance, Sergeant (or Corporal), with the countersign!” and satisfy himself that the party is what it represents itself to be. If he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, if the wrong countersign be given, or if the per-


sons have not the countersign, he will cause them to stand, and call-“ Corporal of the guard!”
   426. In the daytime, when the sentinel before the guard sees the officer of the day approach, he will call-“ Turn out the guard! Officer of the day.” The guard will be paraded, and salute with presented arms 
   427. When any person approaches a post of the guard at night, the sentinel before the post, after challenging, causes him to halt until examined by a non-commissioned officer of the guard. If it be the officer of the day, or any other officer entitled to inspect the guard and to make the rounds, the non-commissioned officer will call-“ Turn out the guard!” when the guard will be paraded at shouldered arms, and the officer of the guard, if he thinks necessary, may demand the countersign and parole. 
   428. The officer of the day, wishing to make the rounds, will take an escort of a non-commissioned officer and two men. When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel, the Sergeant will answer- “Grand rounds!” and the sentinel will reply- “ Halt, grand rounds! Advance, Sergeant, with the countersign!” Upon which the Sergeant advances and gives the countersign. The sentinel will then cry- “Advance, rounds!” and stand at a shoulder till they have passed.


429. When the sentinel before the guard challenges, and is answered “Grand rounds,” he will reply- “Halt, grand rounds! Turn out the guard; grand rounds!” Upon which the guard will be drawn up at shouldered arms. The officer commanding the guard will then order a Sergeant and two men to advance; when within ten paces, the Sergeant challenges. The Sergeant of the grand rounds answers- “Grand rounds!” The Sergeant of the guard replies- “Advance, Sergeant, with the countersign!” The Sergeant of the rounds advances alone, gives the countersign, and returns to his round. The Sergeant of the guard calls to his officer- “The countersign is right!” on which the officer of the guard calls- “Advance, rounds!” The officer of the rounds then advances alone, the guard standing at shouldered arms. The officer of the rounds passes along the front of the guard to the officer, who keeps his post on the right, and gives him the parole. He then examines the guard, orders back his escort, and, taking a new one, proceeds in the same manner to other guards.


   570. In the cavalry, dismounted men and those whose horses are not in order are preferred for the detail for dismounted service. Those who are


mounted are never employed on those services if the number of the other class are sufficient.
   571. Every non-commissioned officer and soldier in the cavalry detailed for dismounted service must, before he marches, take to the first sergeant of the troop, or sergeant of his squad, his horse equipments and his valise ready packed. In case of alarm, the first sergeant sees that the horses of these men are equipped and led to the rendezvous.

Police Guards.

   575. In the cavalry, dismounted men are employed in the preference on the police guard. The mounted men on guard are sent in succession, a part at a time to groom their horses. The advanced post is always formed of mounted men.
   576. In each company a corporal has charge of the stable-guard. His tour begins at retreat and ends at morning stable-call. The stable guard is large enough to relieve men on post every two hours. They sleep in their tents, and are called by the corporal when wanted. At retreat, he closes the streets of the camp with cords, or uses other precautions to prevent the escape of loose horses.
   582. The sentinels on the front of the advanced post have orders to permit neither non-commissioned


officers nor soldiers to pass the line, without reporting at the advanced post; to warn the advanced post of the approach of any armed body, and to arrest all suspicious persons. The sergeant sends persons so arrested to the officer of the guard, and warns him of the approach of any armed body.
   583. The sentinel over the arms at the advanced post guards the prisoners, and keeps sight of them, and suffers no one to converse with them without permission. They are only permitted to go to the sinks one at a time, and under a sentinel.

Grand Guards and other Outposts.

   621. A sentinel should always be ready to fire; vedettes carry their pistols or carbines in their hands. A sentinel must be sure of the presence of an enemy before he fires; once satisfied of that, he must fire, though all defense on his part be useless, as the safety of the post may depend on it. Sentinels fire on all persons deserting to the enemy.
   624. On the approach of any one at night, the sentinel orders "Halt!" If the order is not obeyed after one repeated, he fires. If obeyed, he calls - "Who goes there?" If answered- "Rounds" or "Patrol," he says- "Stand: Advance one with the countersign." If more than one advance at the same time, or the person who advances fails to give


the countersign or signal agreed on, the sentinel fires, and falls back on his guard. The sentinel over the arms, as soon as his hail is answered, turns out the guard, and the Corporal goes to reconnoitre. When it is desirable to hide the position of the sentinel from the enemy, the hail is replaced by signals; the sentinel gives the signal, and those approaching the counter signal. 


   693. On the march no one shall fire a gun, or cry "halt" or "march" without orders. 
694. Soldiers are not to stop for water; the canteens should be filled before starting.


   734. During the fight the officers and non-commissioned officers keep the men in the ranks, and enforce obedience if necessary. Soldiers must not be permitted to leave the ranks to strip or rob the dead,-nor even to assist the wounded unless by express permission, which is only to be given after the action is decided. The highest interest and most pressing duty is to win the victory, by winning which only can a proper care of the wounded be ensured.


   895. The legal punishments for soldiers by sen-


tence of a court-martial according to the offense, and the jurisdiction of the court, are-death; confinement; confinement on bread and water diet; solitary confinement; hard labor; ball and chain; forfeiture of pay and allowances; discharges from service; and reprimands, and, when non-commissioned officers, reduction to the ranks. Ordnance Sergeants and Hospital Stewards, however, though liable to discharge, may not be reduced. Nor are they to be tried by regimental or garrison courts-martial, unless by special permission of the department commander. Solitary confinement, or confinement on bread and water, shall not exceed fourteen days at a time, with intervals between the periods of such confinement not less than such periods; and not exceeding eighty-four days in any one year.

Public Property, Money, and Accounts.

   1016. Public horses, mules, oxen, tools, and implements shall be branded conspicuously U. S. before being used in service, and all other public property that it may be useful to mark; and all public property having the brand of the U.S. when sold or condemned, shall be branded with the letter C.
   1027. If any article of public property be lost or damaged by neglect or fault of any officer or


soldier, he shall pay the value of such article, or amount of damage, or cost of repairs, at such rates as a Board of Survey, with the approval of the commanding officer, may assess, according to the place and circumstances of the loss or damage. And he shall, moreover, be proceeded against as the Articles of War provide, if he demand a trial by court-martial, or the circumstances should require it.
   1028. Charges against a soldier shall be set against his pay on the muster-roll-but only on clear proof, and never without an inquiry, if he demand it. Charges against an officer to be set against his pay shall be promptly reported to the Secretary of War.*


   1121. The forage ration is fourteen pounds of hay and twelve pounds of oats, corn, or barley. For mules, fourteen pounds of hay and nine pounds of oats, corn, or barley.


   1151. One sash is allowed to each company for the first sergeant, and one knapsack with straps, haversack, and canteen with straps, to each enlisted man. These and the metallic scales, letters, numbers, castles, shells, and flames, and the camp and garrison equipage, will not be returned as issued,


but borne on the return while fit for service. They will be charged to the person in whose use they are, when lost or destroyed by his fault.

Quartermaster's Department. -- Allowance of Clothing.

   1159. Commanders of companies will take the receipts of their men for the clothing issued to them, on a receipt-roll, witnessed by an officer, or, in the absence of an officer, by a non-commissioned officer; the witness to be witness to the fact of the issue and the acknowledgment and signature of the soldier. The several issues to a soldier to be entered separately on the roll, and all vacant spaces on the roll to be filled with a cipher. This roll is the voucher for the issue to the quarterly return of the company commander. Extra issues will be so noted on the roll. 
   1160. Each soldier's clothing account is kept by the company commander in a company book. This account sets out only the money value of the clothing which he received at each issue, for which his receipt is entered in the book, and witnessed as in the preceding paragraph.
   1162. When a soldier is discharged, the amount due to or by him for clothing will be stated on the duplicate certificates given for the settlement of his accounts.


The Ration.

   1190. A ration is the established daily allowance of food for one person. For the United States army it is composed as follows:- twelve ounces of pork or bacon, or, one pound and four ounces of salt or fresh beef; one pound and six ounces of soft bread or flour, or, one pound of hard bread, or, one pound and four ounces of corn meal; and to every one hundred rations, fifteen pounds of beans or peas, and ten pounds of rice or hominy; ten pounds of green coffee, or, eight pounds of roasted (or roasted and ground) coffee, or, one pound and eight ounces of tea; fifteen pounds of sugar; four quarts of vinegar; one pound and four ounces of adamantine or star candles; four pounds of soap; three pounds and twelve ounces of salt; four ounces of pepper; thirty pounds of potatoes, when practicable, and one quart of molasses. The Subsistence Department, as may be most convenient or least expensive to it, and according to the condition and amount of its supplies, shall determine whether soft bread or flour, and what other component parts of the ration, as equivalents, shall be issued.

Pay Department.

   1358. Every deserter shall forfeit all pay and allowances due at the time of desertion.