OF SERVICE FOR ARMY OFFICERS.
368. DETACHED Service and the Service of Detachments are frequently confounded. Whilst the former is a general term, applicable to any duty which separates an officer from his command proper, the latter is applicable only to a fractional portion of any command, doing duty separate from the body to which it belongs, no matter whether in the field or garrison.
369. The Service of Detachments will be treated under the head of "Commanding Officer." Nearly all the duties that have already been described may constitute "Detached Service," and are so reported on the returns and reports, when the officer is thereby separated from his command proper. One important duty remains to be alluded to, that does not come under any of the heads already given, but may be introduced here as appropriately as elsewhere, under the head of "Recruiting Service."
370. There are other duties which may fall to the lot of officers, under the head of "Detached Service," that are not strictly military, and, therefore, out of place here, as the officer often is when called upon to perform them. Such are special missions of a civil or diplomatic nature, and sometimes the duty may have a political bearing, wherein the officer is an unfortunate, or it may be a willing, agent of the Administration.
371. It is possible, however, for the duty to be very appropriate, although not military in its character. Such would be negotiations with Indian tribes on the frontier, the survey of public lands, or other duty in connection with the public domain on remote frontiers. The reconnoissance and selection of highways through unsettled regions. Such matters have in times past been entrusted to officers of the Army, and may often be again in the future.
372. "All officers on detached service must report monthly to the commanders of their posts, of their regiments or corps, and to the Adjutant General, their stations, the nature of their duties, and the authority placing them thereon, likewise each change of address." (Reg. 468.) This report is made by letter in the following form:
FORT COLUMBUS, N. Y. HARBOR,
ADJUTANT GENERAL, U. S. A.,
Sir: I have the honor to report that I am on duty at this port, with recruits awaiting transportation to the Department of the Pacific, in obedience to Special Orders No. 100, dated Headquarters Department of the East, July 20th, 1865.
Your obedient servant,
lst Lieut. __th Infantry.
373. RECRUITING SERVICE.-In order to keep up the Army a certain number of officers and men are detached from each regiment for the purpose of enlisting men in the service. The different regiments each furnish a certain number of officers, according to the size of the regiment, to report to one or more field officers who are placed on duty at favorable points for depots. The field officer is usually called a Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for a certain designated district.
A permanent Recruiting party, composed of noncommissioned officers and soldiers, who have seen long service, and who are noted for their military bearing and good conduct, and a proper proportion of musicians are kept at the depots, from which details are made to be sent to favorable points within the district. The Recruits obtained by this plan are collected at the depots, and finally forwarded to regiments where most needed throughout the whole Army. Officers and men on this duty are said to be on the General Recruiting Service, and the whole is under the direction of the Adjutant General at Washington.
375. In addition to the General Recruiting Service, Recruiting is also carried on regimentally. The Commanding Officer of the Regiment is the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for his Regiment; he details any number of officers as he may think necessary to recruit for the Regiment wherever it may be stationed. Usually the Adjutant is the Recruiting officer at Regimental Headquarters, and if the Regiment is divided about at various posts, there is usually a Recruiting officer for each post, who performs that duty in addition to the other proper duties of his position. The same principles and rules apply in both systems of Recruiting. (Reg. 985.)
376. Officers of the Recruiting Service must be well informed in all matters of accountability, as they have generally to account for all kinds of property, and to all the respective departments, including the Quartermaster, Commissary, Ordnance, and in addition the Adjutant General's Department. From the last he draws his Recruiting funds through the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service. The same principles apply in the making of returns to these various departments as if he was an officer of each.
377. The regulations for the Recruiting Service are very complete, and no officer who devotes proper time and study can fail to understand them. The general principles do not vary, but the constant changes taking place in the details of enlistment as to the term, the bounty, the premium, the subsisting and clothing, etc., that require to be specially remembered.
378. The mode of raising troops also varies with the emergency. The Regulations provide only for the raising of the Regular Army and for a time of peace. In time of war special acts of Congress govern, or, in the absence of such acts, the temporary orders of the War Department. Heretofore the people have, in the main, supplied the military force with men by voluntary enlistment.
379. The system of Regimental Recruiting is likely to be adopted. Since the adoption of the three battalion formation, each Regiment of the new organization has a depot for its headquarters, where the invalided soldiers of the Regiment form the permanent party, the Commanding Officer of the Regiment acts as the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for his Regiment, and the depot is the rendezvous from which the Regiment is kept supplied with men.
380. The old Regiments are still supplied as formerly. There is a superintendent for the Artillery, Cavalry and Infantry each, and one or more depots as rendezvous are established throughout the country. Fort Columbus, N. Y., has generally been the depot for the Infantry in the East, and Newport Barracks, Ky., in the West. Carlisle Barracks has been the principal depot for the Cavalry. The Artillery has always been favorably situated for recruiting, and no special depot has been organized for this arm. Remote detachments of the Artillery arm have been generally supplied with men from the Infantry depot.
381. When a Lieutenant receives a detail for the Recruiting Service it is followed by an order to report to some superintendent from whom he receives his instructions as to where he shall establish his recruiting party. He may have several auxiliary recruiting parties under his charge, each consisting of a non-commissioned officer, two privates and a drummer and fifer. (Reg. 913.)
382. The essential point in recruiting is to get good serviceable men; men who are not fit for soldiers are worse than no men at all. Success in recruiting not only requires that the men shall be obtained, but they must be such men as are contemplated by the Regulations. The duty must not be left exclusively to the men, the officer must be active and attentive himself, and not absent himself from his recruiting station without permission. (Reg. 925.) Like every other duty, it requires attention, application and industry.
383. Recruits must not be enticed into the service by deception or fraud, nor should the recruit be permitted to exercise such means to get into the service. The rules should be strictly observed in the examination of recruits, and the regulations concerning minors strictly carried out. Married men are ordinarily, in time of peace, excluded from enlisting. The oath should not be administered until the eligibility of the recruit has been fully established. When the oath has been administered the recruit is duly enlisted.
384. The Recruiting Officer should be provided with clothing with which to supply his men, he must either have quarters and fuel and provisions furnished by the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments, or he must obtain them by contract. (Reg. 1204.) Various ways are authorized by Regulations, all of which involve an accountability that the officer must fully comprehend, as he will be held strictly responsible.
385. He must provide medical attendance for the men when they get sick, if there is not a medical officer of the Army present to attend them. (Reg. 939.) Physicians are not to be employed for the purpose of examining Recruits only; if it is necessary to employ a physician on account of sickness, he may also be required to examine Recruits as to their physical condition for the service. (Reg. 938.)
386. A variety of accounts are involved in the enlistment of soldiers which must be kept separate, to enable the auditing officer to give due credit to the various appropriations from which the accounts are paid, notwithstanding that the officer may be authorized to pay them from the Recruiting funds in his hands. The general rules for making out accounts must be well studied and adhered to. (Reg. 963; par. 395.)
387. In the case of a detachment of Recruits for a length of time the same duties and responsibilities that pertain to a Company Commander, are performed by the Commanding Officer of the detachment, like the Captain, he is accountable for the clothing, subsistence and instruction of the men; they should be supplied and governed in the same way the men of a company should be.
388. Great care is to be observed in the making of the original record of the Recruit; his correct name in full, age, and description, and a count of bounty, clothing, advance pay, etc., etc., correctly entered. The man's future history depends greatly upon the correctness of his descriptive roll, and, perhaps, a great deal of inconvenience may be saved him, for if his papers are not correct in this respect, it may stop his pay for a long time until his record, or what is now commonly called his descriptive list or roll, can be corrected.
389. It must be remembered that from the moment a soldier is enlisted, his military history should accompany him in the form of his descriptive list, and his immediate commander is made responsible for this. He starts from the station where be was enlisted with it, and if it is wrong then it is likely to be wrong throughout until corrected. Should the error continue for any great length of time it will be very difficult to correct it.
390. A descriptive book is required to be kept at each Recruiting station wherein the name of each Recruit is entered, and his history up to the time of his leaving the station, and then a copy of this record accompanies him to his new post. This constitutes the usual muster and descriptive roll that is required to accompany every detachment of Recruits sent forward. (Reg. 982.)
391. The stationery and blank books required at a Recruiting station are purchased by the Recruiting officer. The blanks, money, etc., for carrying on his duty at the station, are obtained by timely requisition on the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service, whose duty it is to obtain the necessary blanks from the proper bureau. (Reg. 954.)
392. When an officer is relieved from the Recruiting Service, or when the Recruiting station is broken up, he turns over to the person directed to relieve him, or such other person as may be indicated in the order, all the property and funds in his possession. If no one is directed to relieve him, he will usually receive the necessary orders as to the disposition to make of such funds and property as he may be responsible for. In the event that no one is designated, he can turn over his funds to a paymaster, or to an assistant treasurer to the credit of the United States. Property that cannot be turned over should be sold, and the sales accounted for, and the proceeds taken up to the credit of the United States.
393. It may occur that, from some cause, the necessary funds may be delayed. In such a case the liabilities incurred are provided for, as in all other cases, certified accounts in the required form are given, and these can be paid by the successor, or by the department to which the account appertains, should the officer be relieved, or any event occur that would prevent him from settling the account, before funds arrive. It is the officer's duty to guard against any event that might deprive the creditor of his just dues.
394. The following are the accounts, returns, etc., to be rendered by officers on Recruiting Service: (Reg. 962.)
To the Second
Auditor of the Treasury.
1. Recruiting Accounts Current, monthly, with abstracts, vouchers, and one set of enlistments. An account will be rendered by every officer who may receive funds, whether he makes expenditures or not during the month.
Third Auditor of the Treasury.
2. (When required to disburse quartermaster's or subsistence funds,) such money accounts as may be required by the regulations of those departments respectively.
To the Adjutant General.
To the Superintendent.
To the Quartermaster General.
To the Commissary General of
To the Chief of Ordnance.
395. The following rules must be observed in making out and forwarding accounts and papers: (Reg. 963.)1. Letters addressed to the Adjutant General "on Recruiting Service." will be so endorsed on the envelopes, under the words "official business;" if on recruiting service for volunteers, they will be endorsed "on Volunteer Recruiting Service," under those words.
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