368. DETACHED Service and the Service of Detachments are frequently confounded. Whilst the former is a general term, applicable to any duty which separates an officer from his command proper, the latter is applicable only to a fractional portion of any command, doing duty separate from the body to which it belongs, no matter whether in the field or garrison.

369. The Service of Detachments will be treated under the head of "Commanding Officer." Nearly all the duties that have already been described may constitute "Detached Service," and are so reported on the returns and reports, when the officer is thereby separated from his command proper. One important duty remains to be alluded to, that does not come under any of the heads already given, but may be introduced here as appropriately as elsewhere, under the head of "Recruiting Service."

370. There are other duties which may fall to the lot of officers, under the head of "Detached Service," that are not strictly military, and, therefore, out of place here, as the officer often is when called upon to perform them. Such are special missions of a civil or diplomatic nature, and sometimes the duty may have a political bearing, wherein the officer is an unfortunate, or it may be a willing, agent of the Administration.

371. It is possible, however, for the duty to be very appropriate, although not military in its character. Such would be negotiations with Indian tribes on the frontier, the survey of public lands, or other duty in connection with the public domain on remote frontiers. The reconnoissance and selection of highways through unsettled regions. Such matters have in times past been entrusted to officers of the Army, and may often be again in the future.

372. "All officers on detached service must report monthly to the commanders of their posts, of their regiments or corps, and to the Adjutant General, their stations, the nature of their duties, and the authority placing them thereon, likewise each change of address." (Reg. 468.) This report is made by letter in the following form:




  July 31st, 1865.


Washington, D. C.

Sir: I have the honor to report that I am on duty at this port, with recruits awaiting transportation to the Department of the Pacific, in obedience to Special Orders No. 100, dated Headquarters Department of the East, July 20th, 1865.


Very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

         A_______ B_______,

         lst Lieut. __th Infantry.




373. RECRUITING SERVICE.-In order to keep up the Army a certain number of officers and men are detached from each regiment for the purpose of enlisting men in the service. The different regiments each furnish a certain number of officers, according to the size of the regiment, to report to one or more field officers who are placed on duty at favorable points for depots. The field officer is usually called a Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for a certain designated district.

A permanent Recruiting party, composed of noncommissioned officers and soldiers, who have seen long service, and who are noted for their military bearing and good conduct, and a proper proportion of musicians are kept at the depots, from which details are made to be sent to favorable points within the district. The Recruits obtained by this plan are collected at the depots, and finally forwarded to regiments where most needed throughout the whole Army. Officers and men on this duty are said to be on the General Recruiting Service, and the whole is under the direction of the Adjutant General at Washington.

375. In addition to the General Recruiting Service, Recruiting is also carried on regimentally. The Commanding Officer of the Regiment is the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for his Regiment; he details any number of officers as he may think necessary to recruit for the Regiment wherever it may be stationed. Usually the Adjutant is the Recruiting officer at Regimental Headquarters, and if the Regiment is divided about at various posts, there is usually a Recruiting officer for each post, who performs that duty in addition to the other proper duties of his position. The same principles and rules apply in both systems of Recruiting. (Reg. 985.)

376. Officers of the Recruiting Service must be well informed in all matters of accountability, as they have generally to account for all kinds of property, and to all the respective departments, including the Quartermaster, Commissary, Ordnance, and in addition the Adjutant General's Department. From the last he draws his Recruiting funds through the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service. The same principles apply in the making of returns to these various departments as if he was an officer of each.

377. The regulations for the Recruiting Service are very complete, and no officer who devotes proper time and study can fail to understand them. The general principles do not vary, but the constant changes taking place in the details of enlistment as to the term, the bounty, the premium, the subsisting and clothing, etc., that require to be specially remembered.

378. The mode of raising troops also varies with the emergency. The Regulations provide only for the raising of the Regular Army and for a time of peace. In time of war special acts of Congress govern, or, in the absence of such acts, the temporary orders of the War Department. Heretofore the people have, in the main, supplied the military force with men by voluntary enlistment.

379. The system of Regimental Recruiting is likely to be adopted. Since the adoption of the three battalion formation, each Regiment of the new organization has a depot for its headquarters, where the invalided soldiers of the Regiment form the permanent party, the Commanding Officer of the Regiment acts as the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service for his Regiment, and the depot is the rendezvous from which the Regiment is kept supplied with men.

380. The old Regiments are still supplied as formerly. There is a superintendent for the Artillery, Cavalry and Infantry each, and one or more depots as rendezvous are established throughout the country. Fort Columbus, N. Y., has generally been the depot for the Infantry in the East, and Newport Barracks, Ky., in the West. Carlisle Barracks has been the principal depot for the Cavalry. The Artillery has always been favorably situated for recruiting, and no special depot has been organized for this arm. Remote detachments of the Artillery arm have been generally supplied with men from the Infantry depot.

381. When a Lieutenant receives a detail for the Recruiting Service it is followed by an order to report to some superintendent from whom he receives his instructions as to where he shall establish his recruiting party. He may have several auxiliary recruiting parties under his charge, each consisting of a non-commissioned officer, two privates and a drummer and fifer. (Reg. 913.)

382. The essential point in recruiting is to get good serviceable men; men who are not fit for soldiers are worse than no men at all. Success in recruiting not only requires that the men shall be obtained, but they must be such men as are contemplated by the Regulations. The duty must not be left exclusively to the men, the officer must be active and attentive himself, and not absent himself from his recruiting station without permission. (Reg. 925.) Like every other duty, it requires attention, application and industry.

383. Recruits must not be enticed into the service by deception or fraud, nor should the recruit be permitted to exercise such means to get into the service. The rules should be strictly observed in the examination of recruits, and the regulations concerning minors strictly carried out. Married men are ordinarily, in time of peace, excluded from enlisting. The oath should not be administered until the eligibility of the recruit has been fully established. When the oath has been administered the recruit is duly enlisted.

384. The Recruiting Officer should be provided with clothing with which to supply his men, he must either have quarters and fuel and provisions furnished by the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments, or he must obtain them by contract. (Reg. 1204.) Various ways are authorized by Regulations, all of which involve an accountability that the officer must fully comprehend, as he will be held strictly responsible.

385. He must provide medical attendance for the men when they get sick, if there is not a medical officer of the Army present to attend them. (Reg. 939.) Physicians are not to be employed for the purpose of examining Recruits only; if it is necessary to employ a physician on account of sickness, he may also be required to examine Recruits as to their physical condition for the service. (Reg. 938.)

386. A variety of accounts are involved in the enlistment of soldiers which must be kept separate, to enable the auditing officer to give due credit to the various appropriations from which the accounts are paid, notwithstanding that the officer may be authorized to pay them from the Recruiting funds in his hands. The general rules for making out accounts must be well studied and adhered to. (Reg. 963; par. 395.)

387. In the case of a detachment of Recruits for a length of time the same duties and responsibilities that pertain to a Company Commander, are performed by the Commanding Officer of the detachment, like the Captain, he is accountable for the clothing, subsistence and instruction of the men; they should be supplied and governed in the same way the men of a company should be.

388. Great care is to be observed in the making of the original record of the Recruit; his correct name in full, age, and description, and a count of bounty, clothing, advance pay, etc., etc., correctly entered. The man's future history depends greatly upon the correctness of his descriptive roll, and, perhaps, a great deal of inconvenience may be saved him, for if his papers are not correct in this respect, it may stop his pay for a long time until his record, or what is now commonly called his descriptive list or roll, can be corrected.

389. It must be remembered that from the moment a soldier is enlisted, his military history should accompany him in the form of his descriptive list, and his immediate commander is made responsible for this. He starts from the station where be was enlisted with it, and if it is wrong then it is likely to be wrong throughout until corrected. Should the error continue for any great length of time it will be very difficult to correct it.

390. A descriptive book is required to be kept at each Recruiting station wherein the name of each Recruit is entered, and his history up to the time of his leaving the station, and then a copy of this record accompanies him to his new post. This constitutes the usual muster and descriptive roll that is required to accompany every detachment of Recruits sent forward. (Reg. 982.)

391. The stationery and blank books required at a Recruiting station are purchased by the Recruiting officer. The blanks, money, etc., for carrying on his duty at the station, are obtained by timely requisition on the Superintendent of the Recruiting Service, whose duty it is to obtain the necessary blanks from the proper bureau. (Reg. 954.)

392. When an officer is relieved from the Recruiting Service, or when the Recruiting station is broken up, he turns over to the person directed to relieve him, or such other person as may be indicated in the order, all the property and funds in his possession. If no one is directed to relieve him, he will usually receive the necessary orders as to the disposition to make of such funds and property as he may be responsible for. In the event that no one is designated, he can turn over his funds to a paymaster, or to an assistant treasurer to the credit of the United States. Property that cannot be turned over should be sold, and the sales accounted for, and the proceeds taken up to the credit of the United States.

393. It may occur that, from some cause, the necessary funds may be delayed. In such a case the liabilities incurred are provided for, as in all other cases, certified accounts in the required form are given, and these can be paid by the successor, or by the department to which the account appertains, should the officer be relieved, or any event occur that would prevent him from settling the account, before funds arrive. It is the officer's duty to guard against any event that might deprive the creditor of his just dues.

394. The following are the accounts, returns, etc., to be rendered by officers on Recruiting Service: (Reg. 962.)

To the Second Auditor of the Treasury.

1. Recruiting Accounts Current, monthly, with abstracts, vouchers, and one set of enlistments. An account will be rendered by every officer who may receive funds, whether he makes expenditures or not during the month.

To the Third Auditor of the Treasury.

2. (When required to disburse quartermaster's or subsistence funds,) such money accounts as may be required by the regulations of those departments respectively.

To the Adjutant General.

    3. Monthly estimates for funds, by superintendents.
    4. Recruiting account current, monthly, with an abstract of disbursements (no vouchers). An account will be rendered by every officer who may receive funds, whether he makes expenditures or not during the month.
5. A quarterly return of stationery, books, fuel, straw, and such other property as may have been purchased with the Recruiting funds, with vouchers.
6. A monthly summary statement of money received, expended, and remaining on hand, to be transmitted on the last day of each month.
7. A muster roll of all enlisted men at the rendezvous, including the names of all who may have joined, whether by enlistment or otherwise, died, deserted, been transferred or discharged, during the two months embraced in the muster roll.-(See section 11.)
8. Tri-monthly reports of the state of the Recruiting Service by Recruiting Officers, according to the prescribed form.
9. Depot tri-monthly reports of the state of the Recruiting Service by Superintendents, according to prescribed form.

To the Superintendent.

    10. A monthly return of Recruits and of the Recruiting party, accompanied with one copy of the enlistment of every Recruit enlisted within the month.
11. Duplicate muster rolls for pay of the permanent Recruiting party, which may be sent direct to the nearest paymaster, when authorized by the superintendent. A triplicate of this roll will be retained at the station.
12. Muster and descriptive rolls and an account of clothing of every detachment of recruits ordered to the principal depot. If the recruits be ordered to proceed from the Rendezvous direct, to join any Regiment or Post, these rolls and accounts of clothing will be delivered to the officer in command of the detachment, a duplicate of each muster and descriptive roll only being then made and sent to the superintendent.
13. Monthly abstract of disbursements on account of contingencies of the Recruiting Service. Copy to be forwarded within three days after the expiration of each month.
14. Monthly estimates for funds.
15. Estimates for clothing, and camp and garrison equipage, and for arms and accoutrements for six or twelve months, or for such times as may be directed by the Superintendent.
16. Quarterly return of clothing, camp and garrison equipage, and of all Quartermaster's property in his possession, not including property, purchased with recruiting funds. Copy to be sent to superintendent.
17. Tri-monthly report. Copy sent to the Superintendent.

To the Quartermaster General.

    18. (When required to disburse Quartermaster's funds, or to receive property belonging to that department,) such money and property accounts as may be required by the regulations of that department.

To the Commissary General of Subsistence.

    19. (When required to disburse subsistence funds, or to receive property belonging to that department,) such money and property accounts as may be required by the regulations of that department.

To the Chief of Ordnance.

    20. A quarterly return of arms, accoutrements, ammunition, and of all Ordnance stores.

395. The following rules must be observed in making out and forwarding accounts and papers: (Reg. 963.)

    1. Letters addressed to the Adjutant General "on Recruiting Service." will be so endorsed on the envelopes, under the words "official business;" if on recruiting service for volunteers, they will be endorsed "on Volunteer Recruiting Service," under those words.
2. The funds of one department must not be used to liquidate the debts of another.
3. If an officer's station is changed, or he is temporarily relieved from recruiting duties, his money accounts will not be closed; they will be kept open till the end of the quarter, so that all money received and disbursed in the quarter may be embraced in one account.
4. Officers, in signing accounts and papers, must give their rank and regiment or corps.
5. Each voucher must be separately entered on the abstract of contingent expenses, and only the gross amount of the abstract must be entered on the account current.
6. No expenditure must be charged without a proper voucher to support it.
7. The receipt to the voucher must be signed, when practicable, by a principal. When this is not practicable, the recruiting officer will add to his own certificate a statement that the agent is duly authorized to sign the receipt.
8. When an individual makes "his mark," instead of signing his name to the receipt, it must be witnessed by a third person.
9. Expenditures must be confined to items stated in the regulations. In an unforeseen emergency, requiring a deviation from this rule, a full explanation must be appended to the voucher for the expenditure; and, if this be not satisfactory, the account will be charged in the treasury against the Recruiting Officer.
10. In all vouchers the different items, with dates and cost of each, must be given. To vouchers for transportation of officers, a copy of the order under which the journey was performed, must be appended.
11. In vouchers for medical attendance and medicines, the name of each patient, date of, and charge for, each visit, and for medicine furnished, must be given, and the certificate of the physician added, that the rates charged are the usual rates of the place.
12. To each voucher for notices inserted in newspapers or posters, a copy of the notice or poster will be appended.
13. Monthly accounts current must exhibit the numbers of treasury drafts and dates of their receipt; and when funds are transferred, the names of officers from whom they are received, or to whom they are turned over, with the dates of transfer.
14. Fractions of cents axe not to be taken up on accounts current. Enlistments must be filled up in a fair and legible hand. The real name of the recruit must be ascertained, correctly spelled, and written in the same way wherever it occurs; the Christian name must not be abbreviated. Numbers must be written, and not expressed by figures. Each enlistment must be endorsed as indicated on the blanks furnished, the number in each month to correspond with the names alphabetically arranged.
15. Whenever a soldier re-enters the service, the officer who enlisted him will endorse on the enlistment, next below his own name and regiment, "second (or third) enlistment," as the case may be, together with the name of the regiment and the letter of the company in which the soldier last served, and date of discharge from former enlistment. This information the recruiting officer must obtain, if possible, from the soldier's discharge, which he should, in all cases, be required to exhibit.-(See 22d Art. of War.)
16. Re-enlistments must be forwarded with Recruiting accounts, although any bounty due on them may not be paid. When the bounty is subsequently paid, the soldier's receipt is to be taken on a voucher showing date and place of re-enlistment, company and regiment, and by whom re-enlisted.
17. The filling up of, and endorsement on, the enlistment, will be in the handwriting of the Recruiting Officer, or done under his immediate inspection.
18. To facilitate the final settlement of accounts of discharged soldiers, the name of the State, as well as the town, where each recruit is enlisted, will be recorded on all muster, pay, and descriptive rolls.
19. Rolls, returns, and accounts will be accompanied by a letter of transmittal, enumerating them, and referring to no other subject.
20. All copies of papers to accompany letters or accounts should be certified by an officer as "true copies."
21. Each voucher should be complete in itself, being accompanied by all orders and explanations necessary to make it fully understood.

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